EB                               Encyclopædia Britannica (superscript denotes the edition).

ER                               Encyclopedia of Religion (Eliade 1987).

ERE                             Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics (James A. Hastings, ed.,

                                    Edinburgh, 1908-1926).

EU                               Encyclopædia Universalis (Paris, 1990).



Ackerman, Robert

1973    Frazer on Myth and Ritual. Journal of the History of Ideas 34: 115-134.

1991    The Myth and Ritual School: J. G. Frazer and the Cambridge Ritualists. Theorists of Myth, 2.  New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc.

Aijmer, Göran

1987    The Cultural Nature of Ritual and Myth.  In: Göran Aijmer (ed.), Symbolic Textures: Studies in Cultural Meaning, pp. 1-22. Gothenburg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis.

Alexander, H. B.

1924    Worship (Primitive).  ERE 12: 752-757.

Barthes, Roland

1988 [1985]     The Semiotic Challenge. Translated by Richard Howard. New York: Hill and Wang.

Beidelman, T. O.

1974    W. Robertson Smith and the Sociological Study of Religion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

1987    Smith, W. Robertson.  ER 13: 366-367.

Black, John Sutherland, and George Chrystal

1912a  The Life of William Robertson Smith. London: Adam and Charles Black.

1912b (editors)            Lectures & Essays of William Robertson Smith. London: Adam and Charles Black.

Boas, Franz

1916    Tsimshian Mythology, by Franz Boas, based on texts recorded by Henry W. Tate. In: Thirty-first Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1909-1910, pp. 29-1037. Washington: Government Printing Office.

Bolle, Kees W.

1987    Myth: An Overview. ER 10: 261-273.

Boon, James A.

1987    Anthropology, Ethnology, and Religion. ER 1: 308-316.

Brandon, S. G. F.

1970 (general editor)    A Dictionary of Comparative Religion. New York: Charles

Scribner’s Sons.

Burkert, Walter

1980    Griechische Mythologie und die Geistesgeschichte der Moderne. Les Etudes classiques aux XIXe et XX siècles, Entrétiens sur l’antiquité classique 26: 159-199.

1985        Greek Religion. Trans. by John Raffan. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press.

Campbell, Joseph

1959-1970       The Masks of God. 4 Vols. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Cassirer, Ernst [Ernst Kasirer]

1922    Der Begriffsform im mythischen Denken.  Studien der Bibliotek Warburg, 1.  Hamburg.

1953 [1925]     Language and Myth. Translated by Susanne K. Langer. New York: Dover Publications.

Chantraine, Pierre

1968-1980       Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque, histoire des mots.  4 Vols.  Paris: Klincksieck.

Cohen, Percy S.

1969    Theories of Myth. Man N. s. 4(3): 337-353.

Cook, Stanley A.

1902    Israel and Totemism. The Jewish Quarterly Review  14: 413-448.

Day, John (ed.)

1995    The Religion of the Semites: Lectures on the Religion of the Semites (Second and Third Series) by William Robertson Smith. Journal for the Study of Old Testament Supplement Series, 183. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.

Detienne, Marcel

1990        Épistémologie des mythes. EU 15: 1048-1053.

Dumézil, Georges

1968    Mythe et Épopée. L’idéologie des trios functions dans les epopees des peoples indo-européens. 5th edition. Paris: Gallimard.

Durkheim, Émile

1976 [1912]     The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. Translated by Joseph Ward Swain. Introduction by Robert Nisbet. George Allen & Unwin Ltd., London.

Eliade, Mircea

1974 [1949]     Patterns in Comparative Religion. Trans. by Rosemary Sheed. New York: Meridian.

1976        Histoire des croyances et des idées religieuses. I: De l'âge de la pierre aux mystères d'Eleusis. Paris: Payot.

1987 (editor-in-chief)   Encyclopedia of Religion. 16 Vols. New York: Macmillan.

Fallaize, E. N.

1924    Prayer (Introductory and Primitive).  ERE 10: 154-158.

Feyerabend, Paul

1981        Problems of Empiricism. Philosophical Papers, Vol. 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1987    Farewell to Reason. London: Verso.

Fontenrose, Joseph

1966    The Ritual Theory of Myth. Folklore Studies, 18.  Berkeley and Los Angeles:

             University of California Press.

Freud, Sigmund

1960 [1912/1913]        Totem and Taboo: Some Points of Agreement between the Mental Lives of Savages and Neurotics. Authorized translation by James Strachey. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Harrelson, Walter

1987    Myth and Ritual School.  ER 10: 282-285.

Hocart, A. M.

1936    Myth and Ritual.  Man 36: 230.

von Humboldt, Wilhelm

1988 [1836]     On Language. The Diversity of Human Language-Structure and Its Influence on the Mental Development of Mankind. Translated by Peter Heath, with an Introduction by Hans Aarsleff.  (Texts in German Philosophy.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Johnstone, William (ed.)

1995    William Robertson Smith: Essays in Reassessment. Journal for the Study of Old Testament Supplement Series, 189. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.

Jones, Robert Alun

1984    Robertson Smith and James Frazer on Religion: Two Traditions in British Social Anthropology. In: George W. Stocking, Jr. (ed.), Functionalism Historicized: Essays on British Social Anthropology, pp. 31-58. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Kirk, G. S.

1970    Myth: Its Meaning and Functions in Ancient and Other Cultures. Cambridge:

            Cambridge University Press.

1974    The Nature of Greek Myths.  Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Kluckhohn, Clyde

1942    Myths and Rituals: A General Theory. Harvard Theological Review 35(1): 45-79.

Krois, John Michael

1987    Cassirer: Symbolic Forms and History. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Lang,  Andrew

1884     Mythology. EB9 17: 135-158.

1885    Custom and Myth. London: Longmans, Green and Co.

1887    Myth, Ritual, and Religion. 2 Vols. London: Longmans, Green, and Co.

1901    Magic and Religion.  London: Longmans, Green and Co.

1911     Mythology. EB11 19: 128-144.

Langer, Susanne K.

1971 [1942]     Philosophy in a New  Key: A Study in the Symbolism of Reason, Rite, and Art. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press.

Leach, Edmund R.

1967 (editor)    The Structural Study of Myth and Totemism. London: Tavistock Publications.

1969    Genesis as Myth and other Essays. London: Jonathan Cape.

1970[1954]      Political Systems of Highland Burma: A Study of Kachin Social Structure. 

London School of Economics Monographs in Social Anthropology, No. 44.  London: The Athlone Press.

Lévi-Strauss, Claude

1963[1958]      The Structural Study of Myth. In: Claude Lévi-Strauss, Structural Anthropology, pp. 206-231. Trans. by Claire Jacobson and Brooke Grundfest Schoepf. New York: Basic Books.

1964-1971       Mythologiques 4 Vols. Paris: Plon.

1978    Myth and Meaning. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

1981[1971]      Finale. In: Claude Lévi-Strauss, The Naked Man (Introduction to a Sceince of Mythology, 4), pp. 625-695. Translated by John and Doreen Weightman. London: Jonathan Cape.       

1987[1984]      Anthropology and Myth.  Lectures 1951-1982. Trans. by Roy Willis.

            Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Malinowski, Bronislaw

1926    Myth in Primitive Psychology.  New York: W. W. Norton and Company, Inc.

1961[1922]      Argonauts of the Western Pacific. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co.

Mandelbaum, David G.

1987    Myths and Mythmaker: Some Anthropological  Appraisals of the Mythological Studies of  Lévi-Strauss. Ethnology  26(1): 31-36.

Masuzawa, Tomoko

1989    Original Lost: An Image of Myth and Ritual in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction. The Journal of Religion  65(3): 307-325.

Müller, [Friedrich] Max

1909 [1856]     Comparative Mythology. Edited, with additional notes and an introductory  preface on solar mythology, by A. Smythe Palmer, D.D. London: George Routledge and Sons, Ltd.

Nöth, Winfried

1990    Handbook of Semiotics. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.

O’Flaherty, Wendy Doniger

1975 (trans. and ed.)    Hindu Myths. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

1988        Other Peoples’ Myths: The Cave of Echoes. New York: Macmillan.


1919    The Odes of Pindar.  Including the principal fragments, with an introduction and an English translation by John Sandys. 2nd revised edition.  LCL, 56. London:  William Heinemann, Ltd.


1963    The Collected Dialogues.  Edited by Edith Hamilton and Huntington Cairns, With Introduction and Prefatory Notes. Bollingen Series LXXI. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Popovic, Aleksandar

1987    Rec i pojam Mythos. [The word and the concept of Muthos.] In: Aleksandar Boskovic (ed.), Covek i Mit, pp. 7-11, Vidici nos. 251-252, Beograd.

Pritchard, James B. (ed.)

1991    The Harper Concise Atlas of the Bible. New York: Harper and Collins.

Ramnoux, Clemence

1990    Mythos et Logos.  EU 15: 1039-1041.

Reinach, Salomon

1911    The Growth of Mythological Study. Quarterly Review  215: 423-441.

Ricœur, Paul

1969 [1960]     The Symbolism of Evil. Translated by Emerson Buchanan. Boston: Beacon Press.

1987    Myth and History. ER 10: 273-282.

1990    L’interprétation philosophique. EU 15: 1041-1048.

Rose, H. J.

1936    Myth and Ritual. Man 36: 267.

Saussure, Ferdinand de

1968-1974 [1916]       Cours de linguistique générale. Edited by Rudolf Engler. 2 Vols. 

            Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz.         

1985 [1916]     Cours de linguistique générale. Édition critique preparée par Tullie de Mauro; postface de Louis-Jean Calvet. Paris: Payot.

Segal, Robert A.

1980a  The Myth-Ritualist Theory of Religion. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 19: 173-185.

1980b  In Defense of Mythology: The History of Modern Theories of Myth. Annals of Scholarship 1: 3-49.

1999    Theorizing Abouth Myth. Amherst: University of Massachussets Press.

Sharpe, Eric J.

1985        Comparative Religion: A History. Second edition. La Salle (Ill.): Open Court.

Smith, William Robertson

1886    Sacrifice. EB9  21: 132-138.

1892 [1881]     The Old Testament in the Jewish Church. A Course of Lectures on Biblical Criticism. London: Adam and Charles Black.

1902 [1882]     The Prophets of Israel and their Place in History to the Close of the Eighth Century B. C. With Introduction and additional notes by The Rev. T. K. Cheyne, M.A., D.D.  London: Adam and Charles Black.

1912a [1880]   Animal Worship and Animal Tribes among the Arabs and in the Old Testament. In: Black and Chrystal 1912b: 455-483.

1912b [1880]   A Journey in the Hejâz. In: Black and Chrystal 1912b: 484-597.

1914 [1894]     Lectures on the Religion of the Semites. First series, The Fundamental Institutions. New edition, revised throughout by the author. London: Adam and Charles Black.

1969 [1927]     Lectures on the Religion of the Semites. The Fundamental Institutions. Third edition, with an Introduction and additional notes by Stanley A. Cook, Litt.D.  Prolegomenon by James Muilenberg. The Library of Biblical Studies. New York: KTAV Publishing House.

Tylor, Edward B.

1877 [1871]     Primitive Culture. Researches into the Development of Mythology, Philosophy, Religion, Language, Art and Custom. 2 Vols. New York: Henry Holt and Company.

Veyne, Paul

1988 [1983]     Did the Greeks Believe in Their Myths? Trans. by Paula Wissing.

            Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Warburg, Margit

1989    William Robertson Smith and the Study of Religion. Religion 19: 41-61.